Topic: user-centered design

topics > computer science > programming > Group: program design

requirement specification
testing and evaluating user interfaces
user interface

customer-centered marketing
customized user interfaces
design for change
design pattern
domain specific language
ease of use
ease of learning
identifying the user interface with the system
incremental development
man-machine symbiosis
non-constraining system
problems with usability testing
specification is infeasible
step-by-step dialog
top-down vs. bottom-up design
user profile
user-defined languages
user-centered operating system
user interface design

Subtopic: design is difficult up

Quote: a common problem in system design is not understanding exactly what the system should do [»freeAL2_1984]
Quote: software design is subject to wide interpretation; involve the customer in a formal way before final delivery [»roycWW8_1970]
Quote: user-interface requirements change more rapidly than other types of requirements

Subtopic: evolve vs. create up

Quote: software developers usually have no, prior customer or set of requirements, evolve instead of create; domain knowledge important [»pottC9_1993]

Subtopic: importance of error up

Quote: don't ignore errors; usually a good reason for it, e.g., misleading information
Quote: Synoname matches personal names by heuristics derived from correct matches of personal names [»grosAD4_1991]

Subtopic: design for community up

Quote: all design and construction should be guided by communally adopted patterns; develops organic order; identifies problems [»alexC_1975]
Quote: project managers, designers, and marketing must clearly state the primary human-factor goals for a project

Subtopic: design for communication up

Quote: while brevity is good, should not eliminate expressive words [»heckP_1984]
Quote: a software designer must think like a communicator and not just an engineer [»heckP_1984]
Quote: a system ought not to trick or deceive [»sterTD11_1974]

Subtopic: design for user up

Quote: to create a computing system, define its virtuality--what it ought to be--and make that vision happen [»nelsTH_1987]
Quote: a system should be pleasant, even fun, to use; it should produce a sense of 'pleasurable engagement' [»normDA_1986]
Quote: a system deals with different classes of individuals [»sterTD11_1974]

Subtopic: user-friendly up

Quote: an expressive, user-friendly application needs a learnable, direct manipulation interface and a domain-enriched, programming language; e.g., SchemePaint [»eiseM4_1995]
Quote: the central, quantitative human factors are learning time, performance speed, error rate, retention, and satisfaction
Quote: can ask 'Is my wholeness increased by this object?' or 'Do I feel more alive?'; get 80-90% agreement when comparing sidewalks and other things [»alexC9_1999]

Subtopic: avoid limits up

Quote: data-oriented UI design defines a set of windows to represent the data; poor support for tasks [»laueS7_2001]
Quote: understandable data through virtual windows; reworked after user testing; physical windows should resemble virtual windows [»laueS7_2001]
Quote: power users will exceed artificial limits; design for infinite growth [»manbU8_2000]

Subtopic: accessibility up

Quote: a web interface must address all users, including non-U.S. and alternate platforms [»manbU8_2000]
Quote: testing blind users with screenreaders; listened incredibly fast; scan with their ears [»theoMF11_2003]
Quote: blind users do not want a special, text version of web pages
Quote: blind users scan the first few words; e.g., start questions with a keyword, use descriptive links

Subtopic: understanding users up

Quote: need to understand users through direct contact, interviews, observation, training exercises [»goulJD3_1985]
Quote: a cluttered, cryptic, alphabetic, help-less interface works well if the designers understand the users' background and tasks [»brooR3_1993]
Quote: open systems should use due process--organized gathering of information for decision-making under constraints; provides a record [»hewiC7_1986]
Quote: should interview users before designing the system, instead of getting users to agree to a design [»goulJD3_1985]
Quote: an analyst shouldn't ask very precise questions with yes/no answers since the 'noise' contains much useful information [»weinGM_1982]
Quote: early focus on users, empirical measurement, iterative design [»goulJD8_1987]
Quote: users must participate in the design of a building, otherwise the building will not fit the users' needs [»alexC_1975]
Quote: for interactive software, should pay attention to the needs and preferences of users; simple changes can improve the product [»ledgH10_1980]
Quote: for complex products need a cooperative, interactive relationship with customers; 'Pie in the Window' doesn't work [»millDC_1986]
Quote: the user always knows something about an application; a good designer/communicator leverages that knowledge [»heckP_1984]

Subtopic: users before prototypes up

Quote: outside-in design means starting with its effect on users; e.g., write tutorials and user guides first [»joneTC4_1979b]
Quote: involve users in a product before prototypes exist; use a few, naive experts [»apple_1987]
Quote: potential users should be part of the design time from the beginning [»goulJD3_1985]

Subtopic: task analysis, use case up

Quote: use task analysis for user interface design; who are the users, what information do they use, and what methods [»smitDC4_1982]
Quote: after task analysis, build a new task environment for the user for the same goals [»smitDC4_1982]
Quote: inspection by usage-based reasoning validates design and requirement documents by manually executing high priority use cases [»thelT8_2003]

Subtopic: user vs. computer up

Quote: better to focus on the user instead of the computer [»shneB_1987]
Quote: the proper object of an user interface is what the person is doing with the computer; i.e., don't model what the computer is doing [»laurB_1991]
Quote: because of Lisa's trash can, folders, reports, and tools do not just disappear; they were either thrown away or filed somewhere [»willG2_1983]

Subtopic: user testing up

Quote: iterative testing of users is the single most important recommendation for user interface design [»goodMD10_1984]
Quote: user testing demands iterative development to fix problems [»goulJD3_1985]
Quote: the need for user testing demonstrates that rational analysis is not sufficient for system design [»goulJD3_1985]
Quote: early in system development, users should use simulations and prototypes for real work; record performance and reactions [»goulJD3_1985]
Quote: ZOG and KMS developed iteratively with scores of intermediate versions

Subtopic: users as test of product up

Quote: use examples to test API design; test usability, documentation, usefulness; API validated by its users [»mcleSG5_1998]
Quote: the primary test of a user interface is its success with users; ask if they understand and if they can perform tasks easily and efficiently [»apple_1987]
Quote: when Disney finished a cartoon, the whole staff went to the movie theater to see how audiences liked it [»heckP_1984]
Quote: establish human-factors goals in terms of a benchmark set of tasks for each kind of user [»shneB_1998]
Quote: use logs and analysis tools to study the use of web applications [»manbU8_2000]

Subtopic: end-user access up

Quote: users have the right to control a system; should be natural and intuitive [»karaCM12_1998]
Quote: VisiCalc may be the first piece of software that allowed a non-programmer to create an application [»coucJ_1981]
Quote: solve communication problems between systems analysts and end-users by making the end-users the developers [»mccrDD4_1982]
Quote: office of the future depends on end-user access to computing power, without having to program [»joneTC8_1981]
Quote: Improv is much easier to use than describe; its interface causes all of its abilities to make sense; an innovative program [»yageT10_1990]
Quote: Improv's item dispenser--select an item for duplication, click on the dispenser, pull out the desired number of items, tear off and drop [»yageT10_1990]
Quote: Jackson's goal is a design methodology so simple that ordinary people can use it successfully [»joneTC4_1979b]

Subtopic: examples up

QuoteRef: cbb_1973 ;;3/16/83 moodyD: Apple Lisa: "works the way you work". uniform user interface, applications work together, works the way your organization works.
Quote: Programmer's Workbench Memorandum Macros resulted from examining how people manipulate and stylize their documentation; easy to learn [»mashJR_1976a]

Subtopic: problems with understanding users up

Quote: listen carefully to what users want; understand what they really want; achieve the latter at a fraction of the cost of the former [»hoarCA_1974]
Quote: dig for requirements; they are buried under assumptions, misconceptions, and politics [»huntA_2000]

Subtopic: presumptive design up

Quote: create your ideas first, design for failure, let users complain about errors, make assumptions and intentions explicit, iterate quickly

Related Topics up

Group: requirement specification   (11 topics, 307 quotes)
Group: testing   (18 topics, 557 quotes)
Group: testing and evaluating user interfaces   (9 topics, 262 quotes)
Group: user interface   (75 topics, 1639 quotes)

Topic: context (8 items)
Topic: customer-centered marketing (17 items)
Topic: customized user interfaces (10 items)
Topic: design for change (76 items)
Topic: design pattern (17 items)
Topic: domain specific language (8 items)
Topic: ease of use (47 items)
Topic: ease of learning (38 items)
Topic: identifying the user interface with the system (16 items)
Topic: incremental development (74 items)
Topic: man-machine symbiosis (46 items)
Topic: non-constraining system (25 items)
Topic: problems with usability testing (16 items)
Topic: prototyping (18 items)
Topic: specification is infeasible (46 items)
Topic: step-by-step dialog (3 items)
Topic: tools (20 items)
Topic: top-down vs. bottom-up design (30 items)
Topic: user profile (16 items)
Topic: user-defined languages (42 items)
Topic: user-centered operating system (24 items)
Topic: user interface design
(36 items)

Updated barberCB 3/06
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