Topic: history of programming

topics > computer science > Group: programming

computer science

history of computers
history of mathematics
Turing machine
what is a computer

Subtopic: specification up

Quote: a Japanese computer, the TAC, used the same order codes and subroutine library as the EDSAC; only source was this book [»wilkMV_1951]

Subtopic: numeric methods up

Quote: Manchester "baby" computer programmed for long division and factoring [»willFC9_1948]
Quote: the EDSAC subroutine library included the Runge-Kutta-Gill process for solving differential equations [»wilkMV_1951]
Quote: in 1942, women could work as computers to assist aeronautics research; a better job then secretarial work [»ceruPE3_1991]
Quote: use an auxiliary subroutine for the integrated function in numerical quadrature [»wilkMV_1985]
Quote: Boys developed an EDSAC program for symbolic differentiation [»wilkMV_1985]
Quote: computers have applications in matrix operations, differential equations, logical problems including chess and draughts, commercial and industrial subjects, fault diagnosis, programming, and pure mathematics [»ferr8_1952]
Quote: Lovelace showed the steps for computing the Bernoulli numbers with cycles of cycles of operations [»menaLF10_1842, OK]
Quote: evaluate a fourth degree polynomial in 13.8 seconds (46 cycles) [»compHU_1946]
Quote: since 1943, tabulated complex functions, solved linear equations, statistical analysis, zeros of a function, and partial differential equations [»compHU_1946]

Subtopic: analysis up

Quote: the Analytical Engine links the operations of matter with the abstract mental processes of mathematical science; a new language for analysis
Quote: the Analytical Engine will change many scientific subjects because it helps with analysis
Quote: the analytical engine will guide the course of science; it can do all of analysis [»babbC_1864, OK]

Subtopic: programming up

Quote: Babbage developed a mechanical notation because his engine was too complicated
Quote: the Analytical Engine embodies the science of operations; combines general symbols in arbitrary patterns [»menaLF10_1842, OK]
Quote: Lovelace used a tabular definition with operations, variables, working variables and results
Quote: a mechanical notation could be a universal language for describing machines; its descriptions are more concise then words [»babbC_1826, OK]

Subtopic: early programmers up

Quote: Strachey's first program was 20 pages long; after fixing a couple of errors, it ran to completion and played "God Save the King" [»campB4_1980]
Quote: early programming was a private arcane matter involving a programmer, a problem, a computer, a tiny store, and perhaps a few subroutines and a primitive assembly program; starting over each time, bizarre difficulties, invention, fun [»backJ_1980]

Subtopic: Alan Turing up

Quote: survey of Alan Turing's contributions to artificial intelligence, provability vs. truth, connectionism, hypercomputation, artificial life, digital computers [»copeBJ10_2000]
Quote: a constructive process is one that a machine can carry out [»copeBJ_1999]
Quote: Newman and Turing wanted to build a universal Turing machine
Quote: Turing and Newman explained to Williams and Kilburn how numbers live in houses with addresses [»copeBJ_1999]

Subtopic: formal languages up

Quote: nondeterministic automaton equivalent to finite automaton; many choices at each move, with at least one winning combination; simpler description with fewer internal states [»rabiMO4_1959]

Subtopic: algorithm up

Quote: Babbage developed a method for carrying tens; addition took 15-16 time units [»babbC_1864, OK]

Subtopic: early programs up

Quote: 1948--first computer program on the Manchester Mark I Prototype or SSEM; 32 word machine [»shelBJ3_1998]
Quote: C.W. Adams developed the first input conversion routines; Grace Hooper developed an equally extensive scheme [»wilkMV_1957]

Subtopic: number representation up

Quote: use the 5-bit teleprinter code to represent binary numbers; 0=/, 1=E, 2=@, 3=A; need to memorize [»turiA3_1951]
Quote: Turing wrote binary numbers with the low-bit first, divided into blocks of five
Quote: interpreter represents numbers as a 24 bit mantissa and a 6 bit exponent; 8 significant decimal digits [»laniJH1_1954]

Subtopic: function library up

Quote: Babbage's analytical engine had a library of previously constructed functions [»babbC_1864, OK]
Quote: create a library of useful subroutines; a calculus of instructions [»maucJW1_1947]
Quote: a subroutine library requires ability to modify instructions for arguments

Subtopic: lexical, symbol table up

Quote: use English words to identify subroutines; start with a non-notational character and end with blank tape [»glenAE2_1953]
Quote: lookup subroutine names by converting to a 20-digit number and searching a table

Subtopic: assembly language up

Quote: Tech Assembly System provided macros and an expansible library of subroutines [»perlAJ2_1959]
Quote: Tech Assembly System had functions with parameters passed on a stack [»perlAJ2_1959]
Quote: the EDSAC initial orders converted symbolic orders to binary form and loaded them into memory; reduces error; 41 words [»wilkMV_1951]
Quote: some argue that attempts to make the machine assist with programming lead to wasteful dissipation of effort; but at EDSAC, everyone used the initial orders [»wilkMV_1957]

Subtopic: early programming languages up

Quote: an interpreter for algebraic equations creates a computer within a computer; input is Flexowriter punched tape [»laniJH1_1954]
Quote: interperter handles equations such as n=n+2, w=-w [»laniJH1_1954]
Quote: programming and debugging costs exceeded computer costs; led to FORTRAN, Speedcoding, floating point hardware, and index registers [»backJ_1980]
Quote: a notation for numerical analysis needs arithmetic operations, letters to represent storage locations, and assignment [»glenAE2_1953]
Quote: 140 orders to translate algebraic notation into code; the most intricate program that Glennie produced [»glenAE2_1953]
Quote: use redundancy of programming language for ease of use and syntactic error checking [»wilkMV_1957]
Quote: AUTOCODE was an early automatic coding system tied to the Mark I; only one user; no scaling [»campB4_1980]
Quote: Brooker's Autocode for nonexpert users; custom teleprinter; included complex variables and the Runge-Kutta solution of differential equations [»campB4_1980]
Quote: quickly teach Autocode in hours; the standard account defined Autocode on two pages [»campB4_1980]
Quote: Autocode reduced programming and testing time by up to a factor of one hundred
Quote: postal Autocode service for producing programs from requests; less than a week turnaroud
Quote: success of Autocode due to ease of use, fulfilled a need, effective selling, and committed support [»campB4_1980]
Quote: Autocode supported by programming courses, a postal service, documentation, and consultancy

Subtopic: abstraction up

Quote: an abstract interface provides a service without revealing its implementation [»hoffDM_2001]

Subtopic: semantics up

Quote: a formal definition of semantics requires a process of interpretation and a representation of information [»floyRW2_1964]
Quote: fundamental semantic entities should reflect the computer's elementary operators

Subtopic: grammar up

Quote: a language is a set of strings; a production is an ordered pair, a character and a nonempty string [»floyRW2_1964]
Quote: a bounded context grammar is unambiguous with syntactic analysis in linear time; appropriate for most programming languages [»floyRW2_1964]
Quote: Backus used Post's productions to formalize IAL's grammar; simplified by Naur for ALGOL 60 [»backJ_1980]

Subtopic: object-oriented up

Quote: object-oriented programming started in 1949 with using Monte_Carlo methods for a heavy water reactor [»nygaK10_1983, OK]
Quote: classes are a remodeling of records; hierarchical tree structure; members are objects; the prefix of a subclass is the higher level class [»dahlOJ_1967]
Quote: Sketchpad can perform basic operations on any drawing part (e.g., display); allows changing the specific details without changing the general parts [»suthIE5_1963]

Subtopic: garbage collection up

Quote: the life span of an object is limited by the life space of its reference value

Subtopic: debugging up

Quote: Wilkes realized early that debugging would occupy a good part of his life [»wilkMV_1985]

Subtopic: performance up

Quote: what is the fastest method to calculate a result with the analytical engine?

Subtopic: program vs. data up

Quote: the Analytical Engine separated operation cards from operands and results [»menaLF10_1842, OK]
Quote: the Analytical Engine embodies the science of operations; combines general symbols in arbitrary patterns [»menaLF10_1842, OK]
Quote: Babbage separated variable cards for the store, from operational cards for the mill; parameterized solutions to mathematical problems [»compHU_1946]

Subtopic: user interface up

Quote: Sketchpad allows man and computer to converse rapidly through line drawings; typing only needed for legends [»suthIE5_1963]

Subtopic: documentation up

Quote: programmer's manual for the Ferranti Mark I based on the Manchester "baby" machine [»turiA3_1951]

Subtopic: security up

Quote: a capability is an ID for a computing object and the allowed actions
Quote: a principal is an individual or group who is charged for system resources [»dennJB3_1966]

Subtopic: testing up

Quote: for sequence tapes in the tape library, the starting tapes should check all switches, plugging, and functional units; otherwise, they just compute the initial values [»compHU_1946]
Quote: before running a sequence tape, manually simulate the computation on a degenerate case or initial point; compare intermediate and final results with the actual computation [»compHU_1946]

Subtopic: simulation up

Quote: simulate a hospital's x-ray business, routing, and elevator service [»lickJC5_1962]

Subtopic: information retrieval up

Quote: Mooers gave first definition of information retrieval; convert need into a list of citations [»kilgFG4_1997]
Quote: Bagley, first thesis on computerized information searching [»kilgFG4_1997]

Subtopic: operating system up

Quote: manage program memory as pages in uniformly-sized page frames, typically 1024 words; developed by Irons using a small resident program [»hoarCA_1971]

Subtopic: file system up

Quote: use a file system instead of cards and tape for on-line interaction; device independent, unlimited storage, symbolic addresses [»daleRC_1965]
Quote: file system implemented in Multics [»daleRC_1965]
Quote: ASSIGN a|^1000 reserves a block of storage on the drum; uses one variable in memory [»laniJH1_1954]

Subtopic: I/O stream up

Quote: a stream function creates a stream by allocating memory and setting function pointers, input stream, and initial data [»stoyJE3_1972]

Subtopic: parallelism up

Quote: algorithm for mutual exclusion of readers and writers; minimize delay of readers or writers; based on P, V, and active counts [»courPJ10_1971]
Quote: the RC 4000 include wait and get event for implementing an event queue; wait for arrival of a message or an answer [»brinP4_1969]

Subtopic: exception handling up

Quote: Parnas and Wurges pioneered undesired events and exception handling of distributed applications [»hoffDM_2001]

Subtopic: hashing up

Quote: map records into hash buckets with overflow into trailer buckets; independent of key length and source language [»linAD5_1963]

Subtopic: data record up

Quote: proposal for successor of ALGOL 60; replaces tree structures with records [»wirtN6_1966]
Quote: record data structure for Algol; each field has a name and a type; pioneered by Ross in AED-1 [»wirtN6_1966]

Subtopic: case statement up

Quote: replaced Algol's switch statement with case statement; mirrors dynamic structure of a program; eliminates extraneous labels [»wirtN6_1966]

Subtopic: sorting up

Quote: first table in lexicographic order; reciprocals of numbers [»knutDE7_1972]
Quote: quicksort algorithm; recursively partitions data by key [»hoarCA1_1962]

Subtopic: data cache up

Quote: Autocode's one-level store, a cache, automatically moved floating-point variables between drum disks and electronic store

Related Topics up

Group: computer science   (871 topics, 23489 quotes)

Topic: history of computers (66 items)
Topic: history of mathematics (57 items)
Topic: Turing machine (30 items)
Topic: what is a computer
(62 items)

Updated barberCB 11/05
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