Topic: recognition

topics > science > Group: psychology

information retrieval
natural language
relationship between brain and behavior

abstraction by resemblance
access by pattern matching
definition by example
information retrieval by following links
naming by pointing or recognition
people better than computers
people vs. computers
philosophy of mind
problem solving
sense perception


Recognition or familiarity underlies much of our daily existence. There is little if anything that is truly novel. What novelty there is usually comes in variations on a theme or in different combinations of things. The very idea of identity depends on recognizing two objects as instances of the same thing.

Recognition is an underestimated ability. From forced choice experiments, it appears that we retain recognition memory for almost everything we see. There does not appear to be an upper bound on how much we can recognize.

Recall is much less effective than recognition. But given prompts and or time, we can recall much of what was at some point familiar. One experimenter noted that given a transcript, a subject could recall events from a year ago. (cbb 04)

Subtopic: recognition as consciousness up

Quote: all animals recognize objects and predict their behavior; allows representation of artifacts without language [»hausMD_2000]
Note: recognition is the foundation of thought and awareness [»cbb_2000, OK]

Subtopic: Bongard problems, recognition as language up

Quote: need multiple, distinct descriptions to solve Bongard problems; a unique description for each element does not work [»linhA8_2000]
Quote: Bongard's patterns capture the core problems of pattern recognition; e.g., ovals pointing to crosses or small circles [»linhA8_2000]
Quote: Bongard's patterns stymie classical pattern recognizers; e.g., hyperplanes or Rosenblatt perceptrons
Quote: use Bongard patterns to test more complex, recognition programs
Quote: metaphysical realism--there is only one way to divide reality into objects; does not work for Bongard problems

Subtopic: recognition memory up

Quote: spatial orientation, recognition memory, and language use different mentalities; e.g., Piaget's water pouring experiment [»lindO_1992]

Subtopic: recognition as pointing up

Note: pointing is the abstraction of recognition; concrete yet elusive; what are you pointing at? [»cbb_2000, OK]

Subtopic: recognizing identity up

Quote: recognition is knowing existence [»dreyHL_1979, OK]
Quote: intentionality is amazing, i.e., that mental states refer to the world; how can atoms in the void refer? [»searJR_1984]
Quote: for identity to be a useful concept need to be able to recognize two things as the same even though they differ [»fregG_1884]
Quote: familiarity is the source of much of the organization and order of conscious experience; even for an elephant in your room [»searJR_1992]
Quote: Frege assumes that the extension of a concept is known; basis for recognizing identity
Quote: all animals recognize others, distinguishing males from females, young from old, and kin from non-kin [»hausMD_2000]

Subtopic: self-awareness up

Quote: only adult great apes and children over two pass Gallup's dye mark test of self-awareness; spontaneous behavior toward their mirror reflection [»hausMD_2000]
Quote: only humans appear to have a sense of self, to have unique and personal mental states and emotional experiences

Subtopic: recognizing objects and properties up

Quote: the possible shapes of an animal has similar properties with the possible shapes of a handwritten letter [»thomR_1975]
Quote: 'choose a yellow ball' might bring up a yellow image, or a feeling of recognition on seeing a yellow ball [»wittL_1958]
Quote: reference occurs only if the object satisfies a set of conditions associated with the referring device; i.e., its intentional content; includes recognition [»searJR_1983]
Quote: need some sort of selective machinery to pluck the new idea or structure from the random; otherwise would not persist [»bateG_1979]
Quote: a meaningful message or regularity requires a complementary skill to recognize it; as evanescent as the pattern itself [»bateG_1979]
Quote: have mental images of concrete objects in basic categories; superordinate objects not easily identified, subordinate objects like the corresponding basic category [»roscE7_1976]
Quote: objects easily recognized from an outline tracing; as good as criterial attributes or full view of object parts [»roscE7_1976]
Quote: sorting objects into basic level categories is virtually perfect; significantly better than sorting into superordinate categories [»roscE7_1976]
Quote: nearly total agreement in the use of basic level names for objects; superordinate and subordinate names seldom used for free-naming [»roscE7_1976]

Subtopic: recognition vs. properties up

Quote: it is easy to have a false picture of recognition as comparing two impressions [»wittL_1958a]
Quote: recognizing an object may be a speaker's only "identifying description" [»searJR_1983]

Subtopic: recognizing wrong up

Quote: it is much easier to recognize an unacceptable system than to define the requirements for an acceptable system [»neugW_1982]

Subtopic: capacity of recognition memory up

Quote: no upper bound on memory capacity; while per cent retention declines, absolute retention increases [»stanL_1973]
Quote: subjects shown pictures for five seconds; two days later, forced-choice between new and previously seen picture [»stanL_1973]
Quote: serial selection performed the same as forced-choice recognition but subjects thought it was harder [»stanL_1973]
Quote: pictorial memory has the same qualitative properties as verbal memory, but performance is better [»stanL_1973]
Quote: recognition memory: power law for capacity and retrieval time, decline if more alternatives, decline if recall instead of recognition
Quote: if recognition memory mechanical then in one second searches 51180 pictures or 68008 words [»stanL_1973]
Quote: recognition experiment on 10000 items over five days was extremely grueling and unpleasant [»stanL_1973]
Quote: even if shown 2560 pictures every ten seconds over two days can recognize 85-95% of them [»habeRN5_1970]
Quote: subjects can view 612 pictures and discriminate these from unseen pictures with a median accuracy of over 98% [»shepRN2_1967]
Quote: immediate recognition memory for 600 stimuli ranged from 90% for words to 98% for pictures [»shepRN2_1967]
Quote: if recognition task is immediate then subjects had a median of 100% correct [»stanL_1973]
Quote: experiment used two-letter names since longer names gave nearly perfect scores in retrieval [»joneWP1_1986]
Quote: we effortlessly recognize faces; perhaps it is like making a footprint in sand (hard to simulate) [»searJR_1984]

Subtopic: experts use recognition for special cases up

Quote: a master chess player has between 25,000 and 100,000 schemata; similar to an educated person's vocabulary [»sowaJF_1984]
Quote: experts can not articulate their rules because they are not following rules; experts discriminate thousands of special cases [»dreyHL1_1994]

Subtopic: recognition recall up

Quote: one year after collecting the data, users could remember tasks given the user transcript and a maximal repetitive pattern [»siocAC10_1991]
Quote: subjects could give good verbal descriptions of recalled pictures; used six or so words [»stanL_1973]
Quote: even though a person may recognize almost any picture he has seen; it is difficult to recall details from specific images [»habeRN5_1970]
Quote: people are better at recognizing things than recalling them; e.g., writing vocabulary of 10,000 words vs. reading vocabulary of 50,000 words [»heckP_1984]
Quote: identification and matching of high school names and faces remains 90% after 15 years; free recall declines 60% in 48 years [»bahrHP3_1975]
Quote: users can keep recalling names of high school classmates for extended periods of time

Related Topics up

Group: information retrieval   (25 topics, 674 quotes)
Group: naming   (32 topics, 789 quotes)
Group: natural language   (16 topics, 539 quotes)
Group: relationship between brain and behavior   (9 topics, 332 quotes)

Topic: abstraction by resemblance (13 items)
Topic: access by pattern matching (18 items)
Topic: classification (65 items)
Topic: consciousness (58 items)
Topic: definition by example (26 items)
Topic: entities (20 items)
Topic: information retrieval by following links (23 items)
Topic: memory (12 items)
Topic: naming by pointing or recognition (13 items)
Topic: people better than computers (35 items)
Topic: people vs. computers (55 items)
Topic: philosophy of mind (78 items)
Topic: problem solving (32 items)
Topic: renaming (10 items)
Topic: sense perception
(55 items)

Updated barberCB 5/05
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