Topic: atoms and molecules

topics > Group: science

philosophy of science

electricity and magnetism
quantum electrodynamics
quantum mechanics


The atomic hypothesis is that all things are made of identical atoms that repel when too close and attract when near by. The phases of matter depend on the energy of the atoms. The scale of atoms is definite (cbb 4/98)
Subtopic: all matter made of atoms up

Quote: many things have common elements; as words share letters [»lucr_55]
Quote: wind is made of matter; though invisible, it acts like water [»lucr_55]
Quote: it is faster to break something down than to make it again; so there must be a limit, allowing each thing to be made anew [»lucr_55]
Quote: the atomic hypothesis is the main result of science: all things are made of atoms which move in perpetual motion, attract when a little apart, and repel if squeezed together [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: key hypothesis: everything is made of atoms, everything that animals do atoms do; the laws of physics should explain everything [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: all matter is the same; frogs are made of the same 'goup' as rocks [»feynR_1965]
Quote: all ordinary phenomena can be explained by particle motions; life is in principle understandable via physics [»feynR_1965]
Quote: the gross properties of matter should be explainable in terms of the motion of its parts

Subtopic: atoms do not change up

Quote: since each specie stays true to type, atoms must stay the same [»lucr_55]
Quote: atoms, the void, and the universe last forever; atoms are utterly solid, the void has nothing to do wih blows, and the universe has no place beyond [»lucr_55]
Quote: all matter is the same; frogs are made of the same 'goup' as rocks [»feynR_1965]

Subtopic: combinations of atoms up

Quote: when you rearrange atoms, their order, shapes and motions, then you also change what they compose; just like written language [»lucr_55]
Quote: how atoms are arranged makes all the difference; the same atoms make the heavens, the sea, the land, the sun, crops, trees, animals; like letters of the alphabet [»lucr_55]
Quote: the most elementary things form other things by combination; minute-particled and the subtlest of bodies [»aris_322a]

Subtopic: atomic number up

Quote: the atomic number, the number of electrons in a neutral atom, determines its physical and chemical properties [»bohrN_1934]
Quote: atomic numbers allow an understanding of nature as pure numbers

Subtopic: monads up

Quote: a monad has no parts, it is eternal; only its internal qualities and actions change; i.e., its perceptions of the external and its appetitions of these perceptions [»leibGW_1714]
Quote: every composite substance has a single monad at its center and an infinity of monads as its body [»leibGW_1714]

Subtopic: gas and kinetic theory up

Quote: the definition of equal temperature is the condition of two boxes of gas that sit next to each other long enough; i.e., the same mean kinetic energy of the center-of-mass motions [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: a gas in a small box is like a room with a hundred tennis balls bouncing around and bombarding the walls [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: when water evaporates, the more energetic molecules leave and hence cool what remains; similarly, vapor to water increases the temperature, so blow on water to cool it [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: from the ideal gas law equal volumes of different gases at the same pressure and temperature have the same number of molecules because of Newton's laws! [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: kinetic theory is the description of matter from the point of view of collisions between the atoms [»feynRP_1963]

Subtopic: liquid and fluids up

Quote: in a liquid, all atoms are in perpetual motion; they bounce against their neighbors about 10^13 times per second [»feynRP_1964]
Quote: a single molecule of water receives 10^14 collisions per second; over a hundredth of a second the collisions are effectively random [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: the velocity of a fluid is exactly zero at the surface of a solid; e.g., a fan collects dust even when moving [»feynRP_1964]
Quote: bodies of microscopically visible size suspended in liquids must, as a result of thermal molecular motions, perform easily observed, Brownian motion; allows exact determination of atomic size [»einsA5_1905]
Quote: if very small spheres are suspended in liquid, the coefficient of viscosity is propotional to their volume [»einsA4_1905]
Quote: a suspended body performs an irregular, albeit very slow, motion; exerts osmotic pressure just like dissolved molecules [»einsA5_1905]

Subtopic: solid up

Quote: in ice, the atoms vibrate in place; melting occurs when they shake themselves out of place; minimum vibration at absolute zero [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: in a solid, atoms arrange themselves in a configuration that minimizes the energy; this pattern repeats and thus forms a crystal [»feynRP_1964]
Quote: in a molecular crystal such as sugar or paraffin the molecules keep their individual identity; the solid is easily broken [»feynRP_1964]
Quote: a diamond is really one giant molecule held together with strong covalent bonds
Quote: in a metal, each atom contributes an electron to a universal pool of electrons and the atomic positive ions are often like small spheres packed in as tightly as possible [»feynRP_1964]
Quote: dislocations in a crystal may get stuck at any imperfection in the crystal; e.g., steel is iron plus some carbon that prevents dislocations from moving about [»feynRP_1964]

Subtopic: model of atom up

Quote: the different shapes of atoms arise from different combinations of its parts; change top and bottom, left and right, make all the permutations
Quote: if an atom were the size of a room, the nucleus would be a spec of dust; very nearly all of the weight of an atom is in the nucleus [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: if an apple is magnified to the size of the earth, its atoms are the size of the original apple [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: in 1910, physists thought of atoms as miniature solar systems with electrons orbiting the nucleus; this is no longer valid [»feynRP_1985]

Subtopic: nucleus up

Quote: the nuclear forces hold the nucleus together; much stronger than electrical force but it falls off much more rapidly than 1/r^2 [»feynRP_1964]
Quote: the protons are spread nearly uniformly throughout the body of the nucleus

Subtopic: scale of atom up

Quote: atoms are big because of the uncertainty principle; if electrons were in the nucleus one would know their location precisely and their momentum would be very large and uncertain [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: the scale of an individual atom is definite; Galileo discovered the effect of scale on the strength of materials [»feynRP_1963]
Quote: the number of atomic shapes is limited, otherwise some atoms would be infinitely large; only so many combinations of parts can fit in a given size [»lucr_55]

Subtopic: organic chemistry up

Quote: living beings interweave mechanics with atomistic features; much more so than inanimate matter [»bohrN8_1932]

Subtopic: chemistry up

Quote: the strongest chemical bond is two atoms with two electrons between them; the nuclei are mutually attracted to the electrons; spins must be opposite [»feynRP_1965]
Quote: sodium and potassium exist because there is a corresponding mathematical structure guaranteeing their stability [»thomR_1975]

Subtopic: repel up

Quote: at close distances, atoms and molecules very strongly repel; it keeps us from falling through the floor

Subtopic: biology up

Quote: a pile of atoms that are not repetitious like a crystal or liquid might well be human

Subtopic: names as atomic up

Quote: a name, when used as a name, has no internal structure; names are atomic objects; may test for equality [»straC8_1967]

Subtopic: there are no atoms up

Quote: there are no atoms; in every particle there is a world of innumerable creatures [»leibGW_1679]
Quote: all bodies act on all bodies and are acted on by all
Quote: in nature, individuals must differ; there must be a reason why they are diverse; two perfectly similar eggs or blades of grass, will never be found [»leibGW_1679]
Quote: words are always changing; words are not fundamental, immutable atoms of our speech [»johnS_1747, OK]
Quote: no atoms of maximal hardness; otherwise collisions would cause an instantaneous leap
Quote: no two substances are identical; each singular substances expresses the whole world in its own way, including all that happens to it [»leibGW_1686b]
Quote: in every parcel of matter there is an infinity of created things

Related Topics up

Group: philosophy of science   (10 topics, 406 quotes)

Topic: chemistry (11 items)
Topic: electricity and magnetism (53 items)
Topic: elements (22 items)
Topic: light (46 items)
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Topic: quantum electrodynamics (34 items)
Topic: quantum mechanics
(103 items)

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