Topic: problem solving

topics > science > Group: psychology

artificial intelligence
coordination system

children vs. adults
decision table
electronic meetings
frame problem
man-machine symbiosis
natural language as action or problem solving
open systems
people better than computers
probability assessment
shared information for collaborative work
task communication
using hypertext for cooperative work

Subtopic: societal problems up

Quote: societal problems are inherently wicked: many possible solutions, no good-or-bad solutions, no test of solution, all solutions are irreversible; symptoms of other problems [»rittHW6_1973]

Subtopic: systematic problem solving up

Quote: the general paradigm of human problem solving is--given a blueprint, find the corresponding recipe [»simoHA_1981]
Quote: problem solving by lexical (continuous->discrete), parsing (atoms->structure), modeling (structure->meaning), analysis (meaning->action) [»rossDT_1967]
Quote: most engineering and scientific problems consist of initiate, perform, communicate result with optional repetition until acceptable [»perlAJ4_1957]
Quote: simplify a problem by splitting it into two
Quote: problem solving can be modeled by two intellects communicating through a water trough using a set of rules
Quote: open systems should use due process--organized gathering of information for decision-making under constraints; provides a record [»hewiC7_1986]
Quote: due-process reasoning: debate between advocates and skeptics [»hewiC4_1985]

Subtopic: problem solving as exploration up

Quote: problem-solving requires exploration instead of just search [»hewiC4_1985]
Quote: problem solving requires exploration: no initial state, pre-defined operations, or goal state
Quote: complicated ideas evolve slowly with lots of change [»nelsTH_1987]
Quote: the roll theory states that, for creativity, an individual needs access to data, without distractions, and an organization method [»bradJT5_1986]
Quote: in cooperative task solving, most time in searching; little time in communication [»chapA3_1973]
Quote: mathematical invention often occurs after a long period of unconscious work following and followed by conscious work [»poinH_1908, OK]

Subtopic: problem solving as recognition up

Quote: need multiple, distinct descriptions to solve Bongard problems; a unique description for each element does not work [»linhA8_2000]
Quote: Bongard's patterns capture the core problems of pattern recognition; e.g., ovals pointing to crosses or small circles [»linhA8_2000]

Subtopic: spatial metaphors up

Quote: growing consensus that spatial metaphors useful for reasoning and problem-solving [»kerrST_1986]

Subtopic: relavant facts up

Quote: problem solving requires restricting class of possibly, relevant facts and then choosing relevant ones [»dreyHL_1979]
Quote: experts look at as many alternatives and moves ahead as a grandmaster [»dreyHL_1979]
Quote: no theory for first step in problem solving: distinguishing essential from inessential [»dreyHL_1979]

Subtopic: writing up

Quote: writers begin by bottom-up thinking by building a semantic network [»smitJB6_1987]
Quote: argumentation by knowledge of subject (below the Divide) and knowledge of argumentation [»smolP11_1987]

Subtopic: augmentation of intelligence up

Quote: use computers to augment man's intellect for problem solving [»engeDC_1963]
Quote: augmentation by 'human using language, artifacts, and methodology, in which he is trained' [»engeDC_1963]
Quote: software tools support problem solving by humans; e.g., PSL does not solve requirements problems, it provides analysis and formatting [»fairRE_1985]
Quote: a large study of graphics for decision-making showed that tabular data was just as effective [»dickGW1_1986]
Quote: IBIS for analysis of 'wicked problems' without a single answer [»conkJ9_1987]
Quote: IBIS supports problem solving by conversation between stakeholders [»begeML10_1988]
Quote: DesignJournal captures the design rationale and commitments to resolve problems [»begeML10_1988]
Quote: Planner allows fragmentary and heuristic knowledge to assist problem solving [»hewiC4_1985]
Quote: AED is a system for problem solving by lexical, parsing, modeling, and analysis phases; machine and language independence by changing the control information for each phase [»rossDT_1967]
Quote: a computer-aided design system should augment and stimulate the designer without awareness of highly complex computer programs; think almost entirely at the concept level within a field of interest; continually extended [»rossDT_1963]

Related Topics up

Group: artificial intelligence   (14 topics, 509 quotes)
Group: coordination system   (8 topics, 217 quotes)
Group: hypertext   (44 topics, 786 quotes)

Topic: children vs. adults (33 items)
Topic: decision table (29 items)
Topic: education (35 items)
Topic: electronic meetings (24 items)
Topic: frame problem (13 items)
Topic: man-machine symbiosis (46 items)
Topic: natural language as action or problem solving (29 items)
Topic: open systems (33 items)
Topic: people better than computers (35 items)
Topic: probability assessment (26 items)
Topic: recognition (50 items)
Topic: shared information for collaborative work (36 items)
Topic: task communication (49 items)
Topic: using hypertext for cooperative work
(9 items)

Updated barberCB 4/06
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