Topic: children vs. adults

topics > science > Group: psychology

relationship between brain and behavior
testing and evaluating user interfaces

ease of learning
error safe systems
learning a programming language
minimal manuals and guided exploration
novice users and the UserInterface
problem solving
training wheels for the user interface

Subtopic: arithmetic up

Quote: preschool children can compare and add large sets of visual and auditory elements without counting; addition as accurate as comparison [»bartH9_2005]
Quote: a child has got to the bottom of arithmetic by learning to use it; that's all there is to it [»wittL_1939]
Quote: our entire lives depend on the 'game' of attributing to others the mastery of certain rules; e.g., the rule of addition [»kripSA_1982]

Subtopic: hidden information up

Quote: children liked "X-Ray" stories; i.e., a Pad++ lens that revealed hidden information inside a picture or text; e.g., a cow that displayed "moo" when viewed [»druiA3_1997]
Quote: children loved the zooming environment of Pad++; they spent hours drawing faces within the eyes of faces and zooming back and forth; went on "rides" with zooming noises and stories [»druiA3_1997]

Subtopic: language up

Quote: for the semantic analysis of a language, just need the course of a child's life, not the entire world [»ziffP_1960]
Quote: abstract knowledge of number and addition precedes, and may guide, language-based instruction in mathematics
Quote: children learn language by language games; complete systems of human communication [»wittL_1958]
Quote: Blissymbolics is a pictorial, universal language of 100 symbols [»blisCK_1965]
Quote: skepticism about meaning from desire for system in our language, our ability to generalize and find patterns; yet definitions are incomplete [»pitkHF_1972]
Quote: while some words correspond to reality, other don't; a theory of language must account for both [»pitkHF_1972]
Quote: a child learns a natural language by discovering a deep and abstract theory [»chomN_1965]
Quote: children speak a creole faster than adults speak the corresponding pidgin; leads to phonological reduction of function words [»sebbM_1997]
Quote: for young children, a word is a whole sentence [»vyotLS_1962]
Quote: a child's first utterances of concrete nouns are at the basic level of abstraction; basic level names used almost exclusively during free naming [»roscE7_1976]

Subtopic: movement up

Quote: a movement sequence (action) may contain illogical steps; e.g., tightening a belt in order to loosen it; difficult for animals or small children [»bernNA_1947]

Subtopic: robots up

Quote: curlybot is a two-wheeled toy for young children; it duplicates intricate motions with record and playback modes [»freiP4_2000]
Quote: children made large and fast gestures with curlybot; less accurate reproduction and fell off platform [»freiP4_2000]
Quote: with curlybot, children quickly learn to create and modify intricate gestures [»freiP4_2000]
Quote: with curlybot, about a quarter of the children made geometric shapes; 4 of 81 made gestural recordings with accelerations and pauses [»freiP4_2000]

Subtopic: construction kit up

Quote: why do children love Legos? immediate, universal, simple, incremental, kinesthetic, visible, quick, examples, safe, fun [»myerBA_1992]

Subtopic: UI testing up

Quote: children are good tests of a system; also children love the sense of accomplishment [»kayA3_1977]
Quote: by focusing on children, Smalltalk became an "environment in which users learn by doing" instead of "access to functionality" [»kayAC_1996]

Subtopic: programming up

Quote: children easily learn the primitives of a visual environment and then struggle to program with them in interesting and complex ways [»radeC3_1997]
Quote: 1/2 of children used event-based rules in their paper solution to a programming task; no programming experience [»paneJF2_2001]
Quote: HANDS programming language designed for usability by children, fifth grade or older [»paneJF9_2002]
Quote: KidSim uses graphical rewrite rules and programming by demonstration; allows children to specify behavior without programming [»smitDC7_1994]
Quote: studies of paper solutions to database access tasks by non-programmers, both adults and children [»paneJF2_2001]
Quote: studies of paper solutions to programming tasks by non-programming children and adults; used PacMan video game and a database of names and values [»paneJF2_2001]
Quote: found children did not use variables, so removed assignments and variables; kept parameter passing, parameters, and an input variable [»mckeRM5_1984]
Quote: if remove queries, aggregates, and visibility from HANDS, only 1 of 9 solved a task vs. 7 of 9 with HANDS [»paneJF9_2002]
Quote: in paper solutions, entities have state and they respond to requests for action; but no use of inheritance or polymorphism; object-oriented is not natural [»paneJF2_2001]

Subtopic: pointing up

Quote: how does a child figure out what an adult is pointing at? an ostensive definition can always be variously interpreted

Related Topics up

Group: relationship between brain and behavior   (9 topics, 332 quotes)
Group: testing and evaluating user interfaces   (9 topics, 262 quotes)

Topic: ease of learning (38 items)
Topic: education (35 items)
Topic: error safe systems (76 items)
Topic: learning a programming language (15 items)
Topic: minimal manuals and guided exploration (44 items)
Topic: novice users and the UserInterface (25 items)
Topic: problem solving (32 items)
Topic: training wheels for the user interface
(10 items)

Updated barberCB 11/06
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