QuoteRef: leibGW_1679

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references i-l
what is a number
infinity and infinitesimal
analytic truth
boolean values, binary numbers, and bit strings
primitive functions
primitive data types of a language
empirical truth
what is truth
mathematical proof as a social process
reality is a machine
skepticism about knowledge
necessary truth
metaphysics and epistemology
atoms and molecules
vitalism, the soul
philosophy of mind
people better than computers


Leibniz, G.W., in Parkinson, G.H.R. (ed.), Philosophical Writings . Google

Other Reference

"Monadology" and other papers also in Leibniz, G.W., Philosophical Texts, translated by R. Francks and R.S. Woolhouse, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998


page numbers from London: J.M. Dent Ltd, 1973 translated by M. Morris and G.H.R. Parkinson, first published in Everyman's Library 1934.

1 ;;Quote: infinite things can be compounded out of the combination of a few; e.g., numbers from digits
2 ;;Quote: the binary system may be used in place of the decimal system; express all numbers by unity and by nothing
2+;;Note: Harriot, d. 1621, used the binary system many years before Leibnitz
7 ;;Quote: a primitive concept is its own sign; is part of the thing which is conceived through itself, that is, God
7+;;Quote: since derivative concepts arise from primitive ones, nothing exists in things except through the influence of God
7 ;;Quote: a proposition is true a priori when it is reducible to identical propositions; its reason always appears
15 ;;Quote: the highest criterion for abstraction is that it should be an identity or reducible to identities
15+;;Quote: the primary criterion for observed or experienced fact is our perceptions
15+;;Quote: facts are supported by the great weight of authority and of public testimony; it is not credible that many should conspire to deceive
49 ;;Quote: every one is agreed that God has ordered from all eternity the whole succession of the universe; the contrary would destroy the perfection of God
53 ;;Quote: every individual substance contains traces of all of its history and marks of all of its future
65 ;;Quote: everything happens in each substance in consequence of the first state which God gave to it in creating it
75 ;;Quote: necessary truths and contingent truths differ as rationals differ from irrationals; the former reduces to identity while the later leads to infinite regress
75+;;Quote: the certitude and perfect reason of contingent truths is known only to God, who grasps the infinite with one intuition
82 ;;Quote: there are no atoms; in every particle there is a world of innumerable creatures
82+;;Quote: all bodies act on all bodies and are acted on by all
88 ;;Quote: in nature, individuals must differ; there must be a reason why they are diverse; two perfectly similar eggs or blades of grass, will never be found
94 ;;Quote: nothing happens for which a reason cannot be given why it should happen as it does rather than otherwise
111 ;;Quote: those propositions are necessary whose contrary implies a contradiction
111+;;Quote: free and contingent things furnish an infinite series of reasons, which God alone can see through; e.g., of space and time
116 ;;Quote: it is improbable that the lower animals are mere machines; such opinions are against the order of things
181 ;;Quote: perception is a simple substance that cannot be explained mechanically. Imagine entering a thinking machine. Many parts impinge on one another but none are the perceptions
181 ;;Quote: a simple substance or perception is a monad, i.e., a self-sufficient, self-moved, incorporeal entity
189 ;;Quote: an artificial automaton made by the art of man is not a machine in each of its parts; e.g., the tooth of a metal gear
189+;;Quote: the machines of nature, i.e., living bodies, are still machines in the least of their parts ad infinitum

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