QuoteRef: winoT_1986

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references t-z
natural language as action or problem solving
meaning by social context
limitations of artificial intelligence and cognitive science
knowledge representation
software models of reality
limitations of formalism
sense perception
evolutionary systems
self-regulating systems
private language argument for skepticism about meaning
science as experiment
denoting phrases and definite descriptions
coordination system
commitment as a system
computer as an intelligent agent
computer as state machine
decomposition of a system into levels
philosophy of mind
abstraction in programming
programming with forms
knowledge representation by frames
organizations as systems
direct engagement and theater in a user interface
civilization and society


Winograd, T., Flores, F., Understanding Computers and Cognition, Norwood, New Jersey, Ablex Publishing, 1986. Google

10 ;;Quote: speech act theory--language and thought is ultimately based on social interaction
20 ;;Quote: rational decision making--list alternative strategies, determine the consequences, and pick the best
20+;;Quote: actual behavior must depart from rational decision making because can't determine all alternatives or consequences
22 ;;Quote: artificial intelligence research follows the rational decision making model
22+;;Quote: artificial intelligence represents the task environment with a symbolic structure and a systematic correspondence
27 ;;Quote: hermeneutics begin as the theory of interpretation of sacred texts; asking why does a text have meaning despite different cultures and language
28 ;;Quote: a school of hermeneutics takes interpretation as primary; gives meaning to a text, determines our language and ourselves
31 ;;Quote: separating subject from object denies the fundamental unity of being-in-the-world (Dasein, the primacy of experience)
32 ;;Quote: the hermeneutic circle--our beliefs can not be made explicit because we are always operating within their framework
33 ;;Quote: when hammering a nail, one does not need an explicit representation of the hammer; the ability to act comes first
33 ;;Quote: skeptical about knowledge representation even though it is fundamental to cognitive science, linguistics and artificial intelligence
34 ;;Quote: cannot avoid acting, every representation is an interpretation, language is action
36 ;;Quote: objects and properties are not inherent; they arise in an event of breaking down
36 ;;Quote: for the person engaged in the throwness of unhampered hammering, the hammer does not exist as an entity
37 ;;Quote: it is meaningless to discuss objects in the absence of concernful activity with a potential for breaking down
37+;;Quote: reality is a space of potential for human concern and action; not defined by objective, omniscient observer
40 ;;Quote: we introduce Maturana's terminology without giving definitions; precise definitions are impossible anyway
41 ;;Quote: Maturna, et. al. demonstrated that the visual system responded to patterns of local variations, e.g., dark spots; not direct representation
42 ;;Quote: perception--the nervous system generates phenomena rather than acting as a filter on reality; like hallucination
45 ;;Quote: living things (autopoietic) are structure-determined systems with the potential of disintegration; leads to adaptation and evolution
59 ;;Quote: every language act has consequences; immediate actions and commitments for future action; if breakdown in commitment than a dialog
63 ;;Quote: we are each responsible for the consequences of how our acts will be understood within our shared tradition; despite lack of rules
67 ;;Quote: scientific objectivity when for any observation we can provide instructions that will lead to the same conclusion
68 ;;Quote: much of what we say is based on what others told us; e.g., our belief that Napoleon was the Emperor of France
68 ;;Quote: meaning arises in the commitment expressed in speech acts
71 ;;Quote: if action is primary, than computers should participate in speech acts that create commitments
76 ;;Quote: language is action, not communication; the basis of language is commitment within a social structure
76 ;;Quote: computers are incapable of making commitments and hence cannot enter into language
84 ;;Quote: a program is a program about something; it has a systematic correspondence to reality
86 ;;Quote: representation is in the mind of the beholder; nothing in the computer or program depends on the representation selected
86 ;;Quote: digital computers allow many representational layers; a variable may represent a satellite and in turn be represented by a voltage
109 ;;Quote: artificial intelligence models of language are generally equivalent to older philosophical models
115 ;;Quote: a new situation invokes a frame from memory; includes expectations and assumptions; modify as needed
121 ;;Quote: ELIZA will respond "How long have you been swallowing poison?" instead of responding appropriately
137 ;;Quote: a limited imitation of intelligence will intrude with incomprehensible breakdowns
150 ;;Quote: organizations are networks of commitments
158 ;;Quote: the core of an organization is networks of recurrent conversations for meeting requests and contingencies
159 ;;Quote: perform a speech act using the coordinator by selecting the illocutionary force, the propositional content, and temporal relationships
159+;;Quote: the basic conversational building-blocks include request/promise, offer/accept, and report/acknowledge
161 ;;Quote: a person can specify a recurrent pattern of speech acts to be performed by the coordinator
161 ;;Quote: the coordinator only deals with the systematic aspect of language (i.e., commitments) that is crucial for coordination
162 ;;Quote: day-to-day people are blind to the pervasiveness of commitment; need education for communicative competence
164 ;;Quote: a transparency of interaction is crucial in the design of tool, e.g., controls for a car; don't mimic human faculties
176 ;;Quote: a human society operates through requests and promises that form a network of commitments; can computerize the conversations for action
176+;;Quote: communication is a process of commitment and interpretation, not one of transmitting information or symbols

103 ;;Quote: a conversation for action is a succession of states starting with a directive and ending with performance or rejection
103 ;;Quote: coordination by conversations about the action, conversations triggered by break downs, and conversations during the action

Related Topics up

ThesaHelp: references t-z (309 items)
Topic: natural language as action or problem solving (29 items)
Topic: meaning by social context (33 items)
Topic: management (27 items)
Topic: limitations of artificial intelligence and cognitive science (64 items)
Topic: knowledge representation (39 items)
Topic: software models of reality (22 items)
Topic: phenomenology (37 items)
Topic: limitations of formalism (92 items)
Topic: sense perception (52 items)
Topic: evolutionary systems (38 items)
Topic: self-regulating systems (23 items)
Topic: commitment (31 items)
Topic: private language argument for skepticism about meaning (33 items)
Topic: rules (43 items)
Topic: science as experiment (38 items)
Topic: denoting phrases and definite descriptions (21 items)
Group: coordination system   (8 topics, 214 quotes)
Topic: commitment as a system (22 items)
Topic: responsibility (12 items)
Topic: computer as an intelligent agent (49 items)
Group: programming   (339 topics, 10050 quotes)
Topic: computer as state machine (20 items)
Topic: decomposition of a system into levels (49 items)
Topic: philosophy of mind (74 items)
Topic: abstraction in programming (67 items)
Topic: programming with forms (26 items)
Topic: knowledge representation by frames (18 items)
Topic: organizations as systems (28 items)
Topic: tools (20 items)
Topic: direct engagement and theater in a user interface (35 items)
Topic: civilization and society (18 items)

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