QuoteRef: aris_322a

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references a-b
what is a number
thought is computational
vitalism, the soul
skepticism about knowledge
abstraction by common attributes
unique names
atoms and molecules
necessary truth
objects as a set of attributes
semantic truth; s iff p
object-oriented prototypes
abstraction by resemblance
what is truth
infinity and infinitesimal
empirical truth
boolean values, binary numbers, and bit strings
metaphysics and epistemology
denoting phrases and definite descriptions
continuum in mathematics
abstraction by name
philosophy of science
philosophy of mind
hierarchical structures
philosophy of mathematics


Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), in Hope, Richard (translator) (ed.), Metaphysics, Columbia University Press, 1952. Google

Other Reference

page numbers from reprint, Ann Arbor Paperback, University
of Michigan Press, 1960.


Copyright reregistered, RE-61-879, 4Jun80

15 ;;Quote: Pythagoreans saw numbers as the primary natures, the elements of all things; including justice, soul, mind, musical modes, relations, heaven
19 ;;Quote: for Plato, beings are ideas, sensible objects are defined via ideas, and sensible objects participate in the ideas that designate them
19+;;Quote: Plato thought it impossible to find a common definition for sensible things; they change too much
19 ;;Quote: mathematical entities are eternal, unchanging, and many alike; intermediate between changeable objects and unique ideas
19+;;Quote: each idea is unique
23 ;;Quote: the most elementary things form other things by combination; minute-particled and the subtlest of bodies
26 ;;Quote: Plato's forms explain visible things by inventing an equal number of other things
36 ;;Quote: the principles of eternal things are necessarily true; they explain the being of other things; e.g., fire is why things are hot
36+;;Quote: to explain something, find what provides that trait; e.g., fire, being the hottest, is the reason why other things are hot; a prototype
36 ;;Quote: there is a definite beginning and the reasons for things are not infinite
36+;;Quote: there can be no infinite regress in the production of things
36+;;Quote: where there is no first term, there is no explanation at all; no infinite regress
36+;;Quote: we know when we know how to explain adequately; adding factors infinitely should take endless time
58 ;;Quote: objects are what is sensed and not ideas; things come and go; e.g., combining two bodies and the present time
68 ;;Quote: it is impossible for anything to be and not to be; the most certain of principles
73 ;;Quote: if contradictories coexist then all things are one, mixed together, and nothing would truly belong to anything
81 ;;Quote: perception is not of itself; what moves is prior in nature to what is moved
83 ;;Quote: law of excluded middle; must either assert or deny; true or false
84 ;;Quote: definition arises from stating what we mean; i.e., the statement of which the word is a sign becomes a definition
90 ;;Quote: elements can not be analyzed further; e.g., a syllable of speech; if divided, its parts are the same as in water
95 ;;Quote: things are continuous which move together and cannot do otherwise; constitute a unit; still more when they cannot be bent; e.g., thigh vs. leg
95 ;;Quote: things are united when they do not differ in a form that is indistinguishable to sense; e.g., wine and water
96 ;;Quote: things are one when they are of the same kind or genus, despite differentiae; e.g., animals
96 ;;Quote: things are one when they share the same definition; e.g., despite size differences
96+;;Quote: any definition is divisible
96 ;;Quote: things are one when they do, undergo, have, or relate to something in common
96+;;Quote: things are primarily one when their primary being is one
96 ;;Quote: something is one if it has a form; e.g., the parts of a shoe is not a shoe if scrambled together
127 ;;Quote: there is no science of accidental being; no systematic account of the extraordinary; science concerns what is always or normally so
153 ;;Quote: definition concerns forms and their parts; must distinguish parts that belong to concrete objects but not their form
155 ;;Quote: soul is man's primary being and the body is his material; man is both body and soul; as is animals
157 ;;Quote: define by genus together with successive differentia; e.g., animal that is biped that is featherless
157 ;;Quote: classify by primary being or form, not by accidental characteristics; e.g., divide footed animals into cloven and uncloven, but not feathered or featherless
196 ;;Quote: geometric proofs discovered by construction; knowing is an act
196+;;Quote: it is obvious that an angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle; from three equal radii and the knowledge of triangles
218 ;;Quote: male and female is not an essential difference; the same seed may produce either depending on circumstances
222 ;;Quote: mathematical entities have no independent being; they are neither ideas nor sensible primary beings
222+;;Quote: science deals with forms, not sensible primary beings nor mathematical entities
227 ;;Quote: the science of philosophy studies the attributes and contraries of being as being; a single common reference
229 ;;Quote: to argue, every word must indicate one definite thing, a necessary connection; opposite statements are impossible
243 ;;Quote: changes, agents, and movers may be accidental, internal/partial, or essential
243 ;;Quote: any movement involves an agent, a thing moved, a start-point, and a culmination
243+;;Quote: the forms or places into which things are moved, are themselves unmoved; e.g., knowing and heating vs. knowledge and heat
255 ;;Quote: an individual is the direct source of another individual; there are no general explanatory factors; may share a common formula
256 ;;Quote: time and change have always been
256+;;Quote: time is either the same as change or is in some way bound up with it
256+;;Quote: no continuous change except locomotion, and no continuous locomotion except cyclical
258 ;;Quote: the first heaven is eternal with unceasing and cyclical motion
258+;;Quote: there is an unmoved mover that moves the first heaven; eternal and primary
261 ;;Quote: the planets are moved by 47 moving and countermoving spheres; one for each movement of a planet
264 ;;Quote: the end of every movement must be one of the divine bodies moving in the sky; no other ultimate source for movement; no infinite regress
269 ;;Quote: ideas and numbers can not produce a continuum nor explain movement
269+;;Quote: sensible objects, ideas, numbers, and contraries do not explain movement or the eternal; there must be something else
318 ;;Quote: mathematical entities are not separate from sensible things; not first principles; no coherency

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