QuoteRef: ziffP_1960

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references t-z
data type
words in natural languages
meaning by use
is a name a literal string or a symbol
language and life as a game
non-constraining system
philosophy of mind
meaning and truth
what is truth
semantic truth; s iff p
children vs. adults
natural language as action or problem solving
naming by pointing or recognition
meaning by social context
semantic networks
meaning by language as a whole
meaning vs. reference
names as rigid designators
names as abbreviations for descriptions
declarative vs. procedural representation
meaning without reference
Liar's paradox and Russell's paradox
meaning of words


Ziff, P., Semantic Analysis, Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 1960. Google

14 ;;Quote: type-token--an utterance type is a set of utterance tokens, e.g., two utterances of 'A cow.' and 'A cow.'; ignores differences
16 ;;Quote: let E be the set of all possible, natural utterances; extends the set H of known utterances and H* of actual utterances
16+;;Quote: want to know what a word means in a language; includes all possible, natural utterances
27 ;;Quote: use-mention, using a word versus mentioning the word as a literal string
30 ;;Quote: if a locution sounds odd, it is an excellent clue to a regularity of the language; e.g., 'There is an apple good on my lap.'
34 ;;Quote: a natural language is about regularities, not rules; using a word (or screwdriver) incorrectly is not breaking a rule
35 ;;Quote: one is not taught one's native language, one learns it (before going to school); again, no rules of language
36 ;;Quote: the regularities found in a language are not sources of constraint
36 ;;Quote: a rule is easily confused with a regularity or observable fact
36+;;Quote: rules connect with plans or policies in a way that regularities do not; e.g., 'As a rule, the train is two minutes late.'
38 ;;Quote: to duplicate a behavior, need to know the intentions behind it; e.g., painting (random) numbers 18, 73, 21, 4 on your forehead
39 ;;Quote: to determine the meaning of 'good' need to know what 'mean' means, e.g., need to know what words have meaning in E
41 ;;Quote: if a theory neatly fits the facts, accept what seem to be the facts as in fact the facts about the matter
43 ;;Quote: if a word does not have meaning in an utterance, then stressing the word is not significant; e.g., 'to' in 'I want to go through Istanbul'
48 ;;Quote: a statement of the form '"p" iff p' says that the phrase 'p' can occur in this way; is part of its meaning
50 ;;Quote: for the semantic analysis of a language, just need the course of a child's life, not the entire world
76 ;;Quote: virtually all nondeviant utterances of E satisfy state regularities or projections to a standard case; confirmable in actual world
82 ;;Quote: in uttering an utterance a speaker is performing various speech acts; e.g., referring, asserting, stating, ordering
77 ;;Quote: a speech act must satisfy certain conditions; e.g., a corpse won't normally do for a greeting
92 ;;Quote: that a proper name can be learned simply by following a finger is a myth; e.g., what is pointed at?
95 ;;Quote: what a speaker means and what an element connotes to a hearer admit of enormous latitude
95+;;Quote: the meaning of something is between speakers and hearers; neither what was meant nor what was connoted
96 ;;Quote: the connotation of an element is the set of similarities noted by hearers of the language about its semantic regularities in the language
98 ;;Quote: nouns are either count nouns with singular and plural forms or mass nouns without; e.g., 'bean' and 'beans' vs. 'rice'
101 ;;Quote: use sound instead of sense to avoid oddity in '... and ... are one and the same cat.'; e.g., 'Witchgren' and 'Grenwitch'
101 ;;Quote: connotations vary widely because everyone knows different subsets of an element's distributive set in the corpus E
104 ;;Quote: a name is a fixed point of the language, not an abbreviated description; compare distributive sets for someone dying vs. changing sex
104 ;;Quote: can define a circle by drawing a circle or by drawing tangents, i.e., by pointing or description
104+;;Quote: can define a circle by many sets of tangents; erase them all and the circle vanishes; the same with Gautier and what is said about him
114 ;;Quote: the oldest example of meaning without reference is the Hindu grammarian's 'horns of a hare'
114 ;;Quote: 'this' and 'that' have different meanings but the same set of referents; hence meaning and reference are not the same
116 ;;Quote: in uttering 'Witchgren is on the mat' the speaker is making an assertion whether or not Witchgren is on the mat
117 ;;Quote: 'true' is a difficult word associated with all sorts of puzzles; can't be ignored
125 ;;Quote: sets of conditions are correlated with the elements of E that have meaning in English; such state regularities are simply a fact
125 ;;Quote: state regularities do not occur for nonsense sentences, nor for sentences used in the liar paradox
146 ;;Quote: meaning is essentially a matter of semantic regularities
146 ;;Quote: determine if an element has a meaning by its distributive set and contrastive set in the corpus
151 ;;Quote: words but not utterances generally have meaning in English; because a word, but not an utterance, has a distributive set in E
158 ;;Quote: the use of a word depends on more than its meaning; also phonetic, syntactic, morphology and etymology
183 ;;Quote: to explain a word's meaning need to characterize the relevant set of conditions associated with the utterances in its distributive set
185 ;;Quote: some words have a meaning in English with necessary and sufficient conditions; e.g., 'brother' vs. 'tiger', 'brotherlike freak', 'old brother'
186 ;;Quote: if a word has meaning in English, can always say something about it; may not able to explain it in detail or give a precise definition
187 ;;Quote: to determine a word's meaning need to determine its distributive and contrastive sets; grammatical characterization, attention to details
189 ;;Quote: need to determine the relevant, semantic differences between a word's distributive and contrastive sets; disambiguation
193 ;;Quote: the final step of determining a word's meaning is formulating a dictionary entry that summarizes its relevant semantic differences
204 ;;Quote: English adjectives have relative ranks that order multiple occurrences; e.g., 'a red wooden table'
237 ;;Quote: for most utterances using 'good', can ask 'What is good about that?'
239 ;;Quote: can debate whether or not something is 'good'; agrees with 'good' as answering to certain interests
247 ;;Quote: 'good' means answering to certain interests; 157 utterances in support, 3 utterances that fit poorly

Related Topics up

ThesaHelp: references t-z (309 items)
Group: data type   (34 topics, 730 quotes)
Topic: words in natural languages (40 items)
Topic: meaning by use (58 items)
Topic: is a name a literal string or a symbol (23 items)
Topic: rules (43 items)
Topic: language and life as a game (30 items)
Topic: non-constraining system (25 items)
Topic: philosophy of mind (78 items)
Group: meaning and truth   (18 topics, 634 quotes)
Topic: what is truth (67 items)
Topic: semantic truth; s iff p (34 items)
Topic: children vs. adults (33 items)
Topic: natural language as action or problem solving (29 items)
Topic: naming by pointing or recognition (13 items)
Topic: elements (22 items)
Topic: meaning by social context (33 items)
Topic: semantic networks (42 items)
Topic: meaning by language as a whole (26 items)
Topic: meaning vs. reference (49 items)
Topic: names as rigid designators (43 items)
Topic: names as abbreviations for descriptions (35 items)
Topic: declarative vs. procedural representation (54 items)
Topic: meaning without reference (31 items)
Topic: Liar's paradox and Russell's paradox (25 items)
Topic: meaning of words (21 items)

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