Group: psychology

topics > Group: science

children vs. adults
models of reality
probability assessment
problem solving
artificial intelligence
relationship between brain and behavior
testing and evaluating user interfaces

ease of learning
intelligent machines
limitations of artificial intelligence and cognitive science
managing people
minimal manuals and guided exploration
philosophy of mind
sense perception
task communication
thought is computational

Subtopic: learning and evolution up

Quote: the two great stochastic systems are learning and evolution; the unity of the combined system is necessary [»bateG_1979]

Subtopic: language as mind up

Quote: keeping modifier near the modified thing is a property of our minds; not a rule of English [»mitcR_1979]

Subtopic: orientatin vs. recognition vs. language up

Quote: spatial orientation, recognition memory, and language use different mentalities; e.g., Piaget's water pouring experiment [»lindO_1992]
Quote: Mac-style user interface from cognitive psychology; combines kinesthetic (mouse), iconic (windows/icons), and symbolic (Hypercard) mentalities [»lindO_1992]
Quote: Bongard's patterns capture the core problems of pattern recognition; e.g., ovals pointing to crosses or small circles [»linhA8_2000]

Subtopic: innate ideas up

Quote: the ideas of God and oneself are innate [»descR_1641]

Subtopic: concepts up

Quote: many social and psychological phenomena exist because we think they do; e.g., marriage, money, trade unions; unlike biology or physics [»searJR_1984]
Quote: in most folk biology classifications, the unique beginner is not named, e.g., "plant"

Subtopic: communication via opposites up

Quote: dreams and animals deal in opposites without saying so; e.g., showing belly or fighting to affirm friendship [»bateG_1972]
Quote: the lack of simple negatives forces organisms to say the opposite of what they mean [»bateG_1972]

Subtopic: verification up

Quote: we like to verify our view of our relationships; e.g., looking out the window when someone says its raining [»bateG_1972]
Quote: discussing the rain acknowledges our kinship without evoking other worlds where kinship may be questionable [»mitcR_1979]

Subtopic: cause vs. effect up

Quote: many students confuse an object's state with mechanisms that affect that state

Subtopic: intelligence up

Quote: define intelligence as the power to quickly find adequate solutions in (what appears to be) an immense search space [»lenaDB1_1991]
Quote: intelligence lies not in the generation of new ideas but in their interpretation and discrimination [»ashbWR_1956]
Quote: intelligence is the ability to figure out a procedure rather than the ability to carry one out [»kugeP9_1979]

Subtopic: complex behavior up

Quote: much of the complexity of human behavior derives from the complexity of the task [»cardSK_1983]

Subtopic: habit up

Quote: almost every corporal thing develops habits when moved in the one and same manner; to begit it, there needs no more than to begin it [»hobbT_1650, OK]
Quote: language is a habit of speech, initiated by the passions, to share knowledge, opinions, and passions

Subtopic: emotion up

Quote: emotion is closely tied to its bodily symptoms; the trembling lips of fear, the flushed face of rage [»jameW_1890, OK]
Quote: the behavioral surface for a dog under rage and fear contains a pleat of unlikely behavior that narrows to a point [»zeemEC4_1976]
Quote: the grief of a nation when a leader dies is due to losing one's bulwark against death [»beckE_1973]
Quote: if animals have feelings because their atoms have feelings, there's nowhere you can stand; atoms do not laugh, nor are they skilled in philosophical discourse [»lucr_55]
Quote: feelings and intelligence arise from combinations of particles that are themselves devoid of all sensation

Subtopic: failure up

Quote: the advantage of the old over the young is the secret history of our failures [»carrJ4_2001]

Subtopic: denial up

Quote: character is a prison, built to deny one's creatureliness [»beckE_1973]

Subtopic: error up

Quote: err and err and err again, but less and less and less [»knutDE7_1989]

Subtopic: goal seeking up

Quote: Goethe--achieve goals by tyrannical power or single-mindedness; the later is available to all [»vonmV_1832]
Quote: fitful, capricious action interferes with the natural course of things; no guarantee of progress
Quote: action cycle of execution and evaluation: goal, intention, action sequence and execution; perception, interpretation, evaluation and goal [»normDA_1988]
Quote: the rationality principle: Goals + Task + Operators + Inputs + Knowledge + Process-limits -> Behavior

Subtopic: action despite errors, exploration up

Quote: people must act without sufficient knowledge
Quote: users want throughput first, will use inappropriate experience, and will avoid new learning; software must take these paradoxes seriously [»carrJM_1987]
Quote: users tend to respond to errors and uncertainties with action; often defer error correction advice; results in a series of mistakes [»carrJM9_1988]
Quote: simulated SmartHelp messages had to be generated on the fly since users were too creative and quick in generating errors and misconceptions [»carrJM9_1988]
Quote: the purpose of exploration is to discover information, so shock while exploring is information instead of punishment [»bateG_1979]
Quote: problem solving requires exploration: no initial state, pre-defined operations, or goal state
Quote: human errors are intrinsic to being human [»parnDL2_1986]

Subtopic: least effort up

Quote: Principle of Least Effort: people strive to minimize the average rate of work-expenditure they must use to solve immediate problems and probable future problems [»zipfGK_1949]
Quote: a person or dynamical system can only minimize or maximize one property; otherwise the problem becomes meaningless and indeterminate; e.g., minimize work or time but not both [»zipfGK_1949]

Subtopic: user testing -- pre-test, on-the-spot up

Quote: pretesting is a powerful aid in designing an experiment that uses subjects [»ledgH_1981]
Quote: for user testing, found that on-the-spot recruiting was better than schedules; otherwise many subjects never report [»ledgH_1981]

Subtopic: neuron nets up

Quote: all of psychology is based on the activity of neuron nets, i.e., on two-valued logic [»mccuWS_1943]

Subtopic: human as processor up

Quote: the Model Human Processor consists of a perceptual system, cognitive system, and motor system; characterize each component by processor cycle time, memory capacity, decay rate, and code type [»cardSK_1983]
Quote: the cycle time for each processor in the Model Human Processor is on the order of a tenth of a second
Quote: Card, Moran, and Newell summarized existing psychological knowledge through a simple model of the human processor. They use the model to numerically analyzing human-computer interaction [»cardSK_1983]

Subtopic: avoid intentional idioms up

Quote: Skinner's avoidance of intentional idioms in psychology is too extreme; use intentional terms provisionally and eventually design a mechanism to replace them [»dennDC_1978]
Quote: psychological theory can not rest on intentional terms; otherwise it presupposes the very thing it is explaining

Subtopic: problems with stimulus-response up

Quote: Skinnerian explanation in terms of stimuli and responses fails to explain novelty and generality

Group: psychology up

Topic: consciousness (58 items)
Topic: children vs. adults (33 items)
Topic: memory (12 items)
Topic: models of reality (33 items)
Topic: probability assessment (26 items)
Topic: problem solving (32 items)
Topic: psychiatry (3 items)
Topic: recognition (50 items)
Topic: sociology
(11 items)

Related Topics up

Group: artificial intelligence   (14 topics, 509 quotes)
Group: relationship between brain and behavior   (9 topics, 332 quotes)
Group: testing and evaluating user interfaces   (9 topics, 262 quotes)

Topic: biology (26 items)
Topic: ease of learning (38 items)
Topic: education (35 items)
Topic: ethics (46 items)
Topic: intelligent machines (28 items)
Topic: limitations of artificial intelligence and cognitive science (64 items)
Topic: managing people (64 items)
Topic: minimal manuals and guided exploration (44 items)
Topic: philosophy of mind (78 items)
Topic: sense perception (55 items)
Topic: task communication (49 items)
Topic: thought is computational
(60 items)

Updated barberCB 3/06
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