Group: artificial intelligence

topics > Group: computer science

computer as an intelligent agent
people vs. computers
expert systems
frame problem
heuristic-based systems
intelligent machines
knowledge representation
knowledge representation by frames
limitations of artificial intelligence and cognitive science
reality is a machine
people better than computers
production systems
thought is computational
Turing test
relationship between brain and behavior

actor machines
artificial neuron nets
evolutionary systems
limitations of robots
logic programming
motion planning for robots
networks of relays
problem solving
self-regulating systems
theorem proving systems


Artificial intelligence (AI) is the construction of intelligent, computer-based systems. An AI system may play a game, solve problems, or act as a pet. AI systems tend to use heuristics, a search strategy, or lookup tables to avoid an exhaustive search of the possible solutions.

Chess is the classic game for AI. Attempts at Go are less successful. (cbb 6/06)

Subtopic: emergent behavior up

Quote: the real mystique of computers is their elaborate behavior from limited capabilities [»kentW_1978]

Subtopic: AI as problem solving up

Quote: one form of artificial intelligence consists of solving problems that have required human intelligence [»parnDL12_1985]
Quote: we need AI because intelligence is used to reduce intractable problems to manageable size; how do we do this? [»strzT5_1988]

Subtopic: AI as imitating intelligence up

Quote: another form of artificial intelligence uses heuristic or rule-base programming to solve a problem like a human seems to solves it

Subtopic: AI as assistant up

Quote: Vellum has a Drafting Assistant to suggest relationships and commands such as 'on', 'intersection', 'tangent'; a use of "animated language" [»tognB_1992]

Subtopic: AI as symbol manipulation up

Quote: AI assumes that one can explain the high-level traffic of symbol activations in its own terms, without neural events [»hofsDR_1979]
Quote: cognitive science rests on the assumption that cognitive terms can be related independently of other descriptive systems [»pylyZW_1986]

Subtopic: AI as string transformation up

Quote: use GAWK for AI because any logic merely defines how strings can be transformed into other strings; GAWK is designed for string transformation [»louiRP8_1996]

Subtopic: AI as novice up

Quote: the mental processes of a novice are easily imitated by a computer; outperforms novice because of more rules and context-free elements [»hallH_1992]

Subtopic: AI as brute force up

Quote: Scrabble is very fast but not smart; still achieves resounding victories almost all human players [»appeAW5_1988]

Subtopic: AI as physical up

Quote: to avoid delusion, should build complete, intelligent systems with real sensing and real action; enhance incrementally [»brooRA1_1991]
Quote: physical grounding hypothesis: an intelligent system must be grounded in the physical world with appropriate sensors and actuators [»brooRA6_1990]
Quote: artificial knee with automatic knee locking reflex on contact with ground [»bekeGA4_1986]

Subtopic: random search up

Quote: software must have internal regularies which can be found by random search
Quote: random search of scheduling solutions more effective than complete search; master or collar variables determine the behavior [»menzT1_2007]
Quote: solve large N-queens problems using random search; up to board size 26 [»menzT1_2007]

Subtopic: collar variables up

Quote: collar variables are variables that determine the behavior of the rest of the system [»menzT1_2007]

Subtopic: learning up

Quote: the goal of temporal difference methods is to match the learner's current prediction for a pattern with the next prediction at the next time step [»tesaG3_1995]
Quote: a program could learn if a higher-level program changed its evaluation functions according to the results of games played [»shanCE3_1950]
Quote: if could teach computers, they could digest the world's libraries and achieve superhuman effectiveness; basic goal of AI [»schwJ_1987]
Quote: a research program for AI is to hand-code a broad knowledge base, then acquire knowledge through reading, and finally learn by discovery [»lenaDB1_1991]
Quote: a program could randomly vary its evaluation function and select those variations that perform best
Quote: produce a thinking machine by imitating each part and letting it roam the countryside; too slow and too large to be practical [»turiAM9_1947]
Quote: Turing created a universal machine by training, on paper, an unorganized machine with rewards and punishments; circular memory of 64 squares [»turiAM9_1947]

Subtopic: chess up

Quote: a paper machine for playing chess acts as if it were alive; it is difficult to distinguish from a rather poor chess player [»turiAM9_1947]
Quote: want to represent chess as numbers and operations on numbers, and to reduce strategy to a sequence of computer orders [»shanCE3_1950]
Quote: computers have applications in matrix operations, differential equations, logical problems including chess and draughts, commercial and industrial subjects, fault diagnosis, programming, and pure mathematics [»ferr8_1952]
Quote: play chess by maximizing and minimizing the value of the current position; computed by adding terms for such properties as doubled pawns [»shanCE3_1950]
Quote: a chess program needs functions to determine stable positions (no pieces en prise) and potentially useful moves [»shanCE3_1950]
Quote: a chess program should play a fairly strong game, at speeds comparable to humans
Quote: can use statistical variations during the chess opening and can play by the book, like masters [»shanCE3_1950]

Subtopic: remote control up

Quote: formal analysis of a plan execution module for NASA's Remote Agent; first complete, AI control of a space-craft [»haveK8_2001]

Group: artificial intelligence up

Topic: computer as an intelligent agent (49 items)
Topic: people vs. computers (55 items)
Topic: expert systems (8 items)
Topic: frame problem (13 items)
Topic: heuristic-based systems (35 items)
Topic: intelligent machines (28 items)
Topic: knowledge representation (41 items)
Topic: knowledge representation by frames (18 items)
Topic: limitations of artificial intelligence and cognitive science (64 items)
Topic: reality is a machine (48 items)
Topic: people better than computers (35 items)
Topic: production systems (10 items)
Topic: thought is computational (60 items)
Topic: Turing test
(13 items)

Related Topics up

Group: relationship between brain and behavior   (9 topics, 332 quotes)

Topic: actor machines (2 items)
Topic: artificial neuron nets (29 items)
Topic: evolutionary systems (47 items)
Topic: limitations of robots (6 items)
Topic: logic programming (34 items)
Topic: motion planning for robots (15 items)
Topic: networks of relays (27 items)
Topic: problem solving (32 items)
Group: psychology   (9 topics, 307 quotes)
Topic: self-regulating systems (23 items)
Topic: theorem proving systems
(20 items)

Updated barberCB 2/06
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Thesa is a trademark of C. Bradford Barber.