Topic: coordinated motor programs

topics > science > Group: relationship between brain and behavior

coordinated movement
equal simplicity
vitalism, the soul


Berstein argues that coordinated movement must be controlled by a motor program and that the motor program is the continual solution of the coordination problem instead of a sequence of commands. He has several reasons for this: coordinated movement has a simple, definite rhythmic pattern which must have been decided before the movement starts, coordinated movement is indenpendent of the actual muscles involved or of particular environmental stimulations, coordinated movement has a topological structure, the actual attainment of the motor goal is realized before coordination is established. Others have observed that motor coordination can occur independently of afferent stimulation.

Another view is that a motor program consists of symbolic control of continuous processes. This appears unlikely because of the rich structure of coordinated movement. (cbb 5/94)

Subtopic: motor program up

Quote: at the starting gate horses cannot burst free as quickly as the mind desires; voluntary motion has its impetus in thought [»lucr_55]
Quote: when a movement begins there is already a motor program for the movement; demonstrated by close approximation to a trigonometric series [»bernN_1935]
Quote: Bernstein realized that there are no 'commands' in the motor system proper [»reedES_1984]
Quote: a motor program is in terms of an image of the result of the action [»bernN_1957]
Quote: localization of motor programs is some form of projection of external space [»bernN_1935]
Quote: motor activity is controlled by forming a representation of the motor problem [»requJ_1984]
Quote: acquiring a skill consists of finding better ways of solving the motor problems involved; not repetition of a solution [»bernN_1957]
Quote: the motor problem must anticipate the result of an action and its means [»requJ_1984]
Quote: a motor program is an a priori prescription giving preferred quantities, commands, and symbolic representations; the symbols constrain the irreversible, rate-dependent processes [»turvMT_1984]
Quote: for nonbiological taxonomies, basic categories described by typical muscle movements; e.g., sitting down on a chair [»roscE7_1976]

Subtopic: goal directed up

Quote: multiple pointing gestures by the same subject follow different trajectories to the same point [»bernN_1957]
Quote: the attainment of a motor goal is achieved early in acquiring an automatized skill; even on the first try [»bernN_1957]
Quote: simple moves appear to be driven by error correction from a geometric image; because they are geometric [»bernN_1957]
Quote: every movement under external forces encounters irregularities that force the modification or reorganization of the motor program [»bernN_1957]
Quote: an animal is in continual dis-equilibrium with its environment; must act, evaluate and modulate instead of reacting to stimuli [»rozeRH_1984]

Subtopic: durability of motor programs up

Quote: after lose of nerve signals, can still perform previously-learned, gross motor tasks
Quote: after lose of nerve signals, can not learn new motor tasks, exert continuous force, or precise manipulation [»speeTH_1986]
Quote: when mentally swimming a given distance, respiration automatically accelerates [»pickL_1984]
Quote: can learn complex central motor programs independent of afferent control signals [»pickL_1984]
Quote: motor skills are difficult to forget [»requJ_1984]

Subtopic: coordination is topological, not geometric up

Quote: both movements and perceptions of an organism are determined topologically; e.g., drawing a star [»bernN_1935]
Quote: perceptual recognition and motor reproduction is sensitive to spatial orientation; e.g., drawing or recognizing upside down figures [»bernN_1935]
Quote: the success of a half-QWERTY keyboard demonstrates that typing skill transfers between hands by mirror image; homologous movements
Quote: the postural reaction changes the activity of many muscles; sometimes distant from the region of the main response [»rozeRH_1984]
Quote: the cellular localization of muscles and the variations in controlling them denies the cellular localization of automatized movements [»bernN_1935]
Quote: an nervous impulse reaching a muscle is the resultant of a whole series of central impulses that reach synapses by different routes [»bernN_1935]
Quote: ten successive repetitions of the same movement require ten different impulses
Quote: arm circles at different positions use completely different innervational schemes [»bernN_1935]
Quote: handwriting characteristics are apparent when writing on a blackboard even though the muscular structure is absolutely different [»bernN_1935]

Related Topics up

Topic: coordinated movement (58 items)
Topic: equal simplicity (15 items)
Topic: vitalism, the soul (73 items)
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(20 items)

Updated barberCB 7/05
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