QuoteRef: akscRM7_1988

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creating a new version of Thesa
news about Thesa
all KMS topics
KMS topics
a preliminary test of directed search
read-everything test of directed search
references a-b
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KMS and ZOG history
data model and user interface
KMS and ZOG goals
KMS data model
KMS is a distributed system
point-and-click user interface
integrated browser and editor
KMS performance
rapid navigation in hypertext
knowledge artifacts
hypertext links
hypertext navigation
KMS and ZOG applications
iterative development of systems
KMS database
large-scale databases
KMS frames
KMS programs
KMS items as links
hierarchical structures
KMS items
current position in a user interface; cursor
use of space in user interface
KMS annotations
graphical multi-node browser
hypertext nodes
KMS versions
user interface
how KMS re-orients users
KMS formatting
disorientation in hypertext
searching text in KMS
KMS collaboration
KMS concurrency control
KMS access control
KMS communication
information storage and retrieval


Akscyn, R.M., McCracken, D.L., Yoder, E.A., "KMS: A distributed hypermedia system for managing knowledge in organizations ", Communications of the ACM, 31, 7, July 1988, pp. 820-835. Google

ThesaHelp: Copyright 1988 by the ACM


This is the full text of the article. It is useful for comparing different search strategies; e.g., with the haystack test

KMSquote: biography for Robert Akscyn [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: biography for Donald McCracken [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS has a simple data model to improve user productivity [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS for organization-wide collaboration [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS conceptual data model is frames of items with links from items to frames [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS is distributed [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS uses direct manipulation by a three-button mouse
KMSquote: KMS combines the hypertext browser and editor [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: 90% of KMS commands are point-and-click, indicates both object and operation [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS has 0.5 second average access time on Suns and Apollos [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: hypertext chunks information into small units of text [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: hypertext displays one information unit per window [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: hypertext links interconnect information units for navigation [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: hypertext users build information structures with links [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: hypertext can be shared via a distributed system [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS and ZOG used by authors: 10000 person hours, 50000 frames [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS and ZOG developed iteratively with scores of versions [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG prototype in 1972 [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG restarted 1975 after seeing rapid interaction response of PROMIS [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG developed from 1975 to 1980 [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG computer-assisted management system for USS CARL VINSON [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG deployed 1983 on USS CARL VINSON [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG applications on USS CARL VINSON; policy manual, task management, maintenance, expert system interface [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG project on USS CARL VINSON ended in 1984 [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS started 1981: Westinghouse emergency procedures for reactors [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS applications: administration, support, writing, programming [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS other applications: interfaces, e-mail, accounting, etc [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS to manage organizational knowledge and improve productivity [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS designed for 1990s wide-area nets of diskless workstations [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS reduces bottleneck of building and maintaining corporate database [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS database is a set of screen sized, interlinked frames of items [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS has standard format for frame [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS item linked to another frame or to a program (hollow or solid circle) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS standard frame is title, framename, body, tree items, annotations, buttons [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: write one-page letters as a single KMS frame [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS knowledge artifacts as a hierarchy of frames [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS frames distributed across a network of servers [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS databases are largely hierarchical with top levels as index [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS hierarchies supplemented with links to cross_refs, comments, etc [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS screen is normally two windows, each showing half a frame (one page) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS full screen frames mainly for complex diagrams [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: central metaphor of KMS is rapid navigation through a universe of connected spaces [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS navigation by pointing at item and clicking left mouse button [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS usually displays new frame in less than 0.5 second [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS editor and navigator are combined by clicking mouse buttons or typing [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: create a KMS frame by writing title and clicking left button; same as navigation [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS modifications saved when leave a frame [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: click on items (with solid circles) to invoke program attached to item [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS programs often process a hierarchy of frames, eg a document section [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS uses a context_sensitive cursor for point-and-click operations [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS cursor includes labels for mouse buttons, used by both novice and expert [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: like RISC, KMS user interface gains performance through simplicity [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS 'move' command drags item from frame to frame; eliminates clipboard [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS 'move' for rearranging text and documents, moving data between files, etc [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: other discussions of hypertext issues, will highlight differences [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS node is a frame, a screen-sized workspace containing items [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS items can be text, graphics, or images
KMSquote: KMS items linked to other frames or attached to a program [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS links are part of a node, like NoteCards and HyperCard, but not InterMedia [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS frame is like space in the real world, perhaps empty [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: most systems define spacing by spaces, tabs, or the empty space after a new-line [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: white space around items make them easy to recognize, eg, for mouse [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: the spatial nature of KMS frames makes it easy to rearrange items [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: empty space in KMS frames used for creating items, creating graphics, or invoking 'back' commands [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: empty space in KMS frames used for annotations, comments, notes, etc. [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: lengthy notes placed in a separate frame, linked by its summary [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS comments are annotation items (indicates meta-level nature) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS frame is 1132 by 805 pixels, leaves room for messages and window borders [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: fixed-size frames avoids scrolling which is less efficient than navigation [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS has one frame type like HyperCard; NoteCards and InterMedia have several node types [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: variation in KMS data provided by text, graphic, and image items [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: linking frames into hierarchies can represent many kinds of knowledge artifacts [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS frames implement desktop, directories, files, clipboards, and menus [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS frames eliminate constructs such as directories and corresponding commands
KMSquote: KMS frames eliminate need for multiple modes; no separate editor or browser [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS links are from items to frames: the item describes the link destination [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS denotes linked items by a small circle; no need for highlighting [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: move, copy, and delete links by direct manipulation of items [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: by separating links from text, can use any link description [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: embedded links forces link description to fit into text
KMSquote: destination of a KMS link is a frame; like NoteCards etc, but unlike InterMedia [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: small frames make frames a good choice for link destinations [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: the type of a hypertext link describes the link's destination; e.g., 'counter-argument' [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS users see link as an item: either tree or annotation [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS tree items for constructing a hierarchy [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS linked annotation items (@) for peripheral material [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS type of linked item (tree or annotation) changed by @ tag [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: having both hierarchical and associative lines helps orient the user [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: hypertext links may be objects that describe the destination [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS links are a property of a text item: gives the name of a frame [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: text for a linked item usually describes the link's destination [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS does not need mechanisms to manipulate the internal structure of links
KMSquote: rapid link traversal is as practical as accessing a link explainer [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS structures are hierarchies; for directories, documents, programs, etc [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS: standard input and output for many KMS programs is hierarchies of frames [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: versions needed for knowledge artifacts with long life cycles [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS versions by freezing a hierarchy: frozen frames automatically archived [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS versions are user accessible, but normally used to reconstruct earlier configurations [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG developed for user interface study; many user experiments done [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS and ZOG instrumented for logging user activity (more than 400,000 sessions) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS/ZOG user interface was designed from scratch; hypermedia instead of windows on a desktop [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: 90% of user interaction in KMS is point-and-click; twice as fast as menus [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS user interface is striped down; minimal number of concepts [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: in KMS, files and directories are the same [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: hypertext nodes displayed one per window or expanded in place [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS frames displayed on half a screen or on entire screen (user choice) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS new frame replaces existing frame on screen [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS uses time multiplexing (quick frame display) instead of space multiplexing [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: if text highlighting used for links then can not use for normal text [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: if embedded icons represent links, small mouse targets and little information [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS link is an item tagged by a circle; large mouse target; descriptive [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS link destination is a frame, so destination does not need marking [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: speed of following links is the most important parameter for hypermedia [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: qualitative difference between sub-second and multi-second response for browsing [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: PROMIS used specialized hardware for quarter second response time (70% of accesses) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG improvement from 5-10 seconds to 2-3 seconds seen as major breakthrough [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: PERQ hypermedia had 0.7 or 1.5 second response time; dramatic improvement over earlier ZOG systems [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG with 0.05 to 0.1 sec response time was faster than needed [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG with 0.05 second response time was too fast (hard to notice new frame) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS design goal of a quarter second to follow a link, may be optimal [»akscRM7_1988, OK]

KMSquote: KMS initially slower response time than ZOG due to larger, more complex frames [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS uses a separate file for each frame [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS now runs with sub-second response time (faster file systems and hardware) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS response time varies by frame size, graphics performance, disk speed [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS average frame size is 1 kbyte
KMSquote: KMS: remote frames on fast file server may appear faster than local frames [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS uses frame caching of file and text images [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS small frames are 0.5 kbytes, medium are 1.5 kbytes, large are 4.5 kbytes [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS accesses large frame (4.5 kbytes) in 0.22 seconds from cache
KMSquote: browsing is the canonical activity; must be quick, especially for large-scale hypermedia [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS frames have a standard layout; quick browsing due to visual regularity [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: larger size of linked items reduces pointing time for quick browsing [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS 'back' command used almost as often as 'goto' command [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS 'back' command is a mouse button on empty space; twice as fast as menu [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: faster response time reduces mental and physical effort [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS browsing is quicker because it does not use scrolling [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS 'linear' program to produce formatted documents [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS does not have a graphical browser because not very useful [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: may need graphical, multi-node browser for large, non-hierarchical structures
KMSquote: ZOG user studies showed that users rarely used multi-node views [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: getting lost is not a problem in KMS [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS users stay oriented because of hierarchical structure (top-down refinement) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS: 'goto', 'home' and 'info' commands help users re-orient themselves [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS 'home' command returns to users home frame
KMSquote: KMS 'info' frame has links to documentation and utility programs
KMSquote: KMS parent links allow users to find the hierarchical context for a frame [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS flags the previously visited link to help users stay oriented [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS rapid navigation reduces cost of exploration; can backtrack to known frame [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: hypertext users have trouble locating information by browsing; poor structure and forgotten locations [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS program searches for text string in any hierarchy of frames (limits scope) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS search program returns a frame containing the titles of matched frames [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS searching: selecting a matched frame displays text with matches highlighted
KMSquote: KMS: building an automatic index with fuzzy matching for information retrieval [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: users like to customize the user interface [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: user profiles in KMS for mouse parameters, initial frame, etc.
KMSquote: KMS and ZOG designed for collaboration via shared access to reports, plans, etc [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS users see themselves as working together to build information structures [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS is distributed over network of file servers but acts like one system [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS users work together on projects; see what others do, make comments, etc [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS has no centralized database administration [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS users evolve database by common sense and group norms
KMSquote: KMS runs on Sun's network file system [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS has a master frame server with location of all framesets (stored as frames) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS index to KMS framesets is replicated on all file servers [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS avoid interference between users by breaking large artifacts into many frames [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS uses optimistic concurrency control to avoid locking frames (interference rare) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS frames are small: many more frames than users; so, conflicts are rare [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: ZOG used frame locking whenever edited a frame; locking removed for KMS [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS uses optimistic concurrency control since conflicts are rare [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS optimistic concurrency only guarantees that saved changes are not overwritten [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS optimistic concurrency: if conflict then newer frame saved for remapping [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS optimistic concurrency: on first modification, makes sure no earlier write [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS if conflict between users likely, then annotate frame for informal locking [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS optimistic concurrency helps combine browser and editor; avoids locking [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS access control done by permissions set by owner of frame [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS frames can be annotate-only but option is seldom used [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS frames usually unprotected for minor corrections; depends on good will
KMSquote: KMS implements e-mail and bulletin boards by writing into frames [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS users converse by writing into frames; this maintains conversations [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS preserves global structure of conversations instead of fragmenting them
KMSquote: KMS supports comments by allowing annotations to frames [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS frames usually have two paragraphs of material; lots of room for annotation [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS annotations are written and read in the context that they refer to [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS annotations are ignored by programs such as the formatter [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: simplicity of annotation encourages comments on early drafts [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS annotations allow author to write while others review and make comments
KMSquote: KMS users make many comments, rearrange comments, respond to other comments [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS bulletin boards are frames; users write comments and sign with name and date [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS items in a bulletin board can be linked to other frames
KMSquote: KMS mail box is a frame; users write their messages directly into the frame [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS: if multiple messages added to a mail box item, start a discussion frame [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS discussion frame is like a bulletin board but for conversations [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS users are more likely to comment; authors make notes to themselves [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS provides a block-structured programming language; like HyperTalk [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS programming language primitives can manipulate and create KMS structures
KMSquote: large hypertext databases are hard to create [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS encourages large-scale databases by combined editor and browser [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS facilitates creating large-scale databases by making it easy to create frames [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: create a KMS frame in two seconds
KMSquote: KMS makes it easy to change the structure of a document; so more changes made; breadth-first view [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS rapid navigation facilitates locating place to change and restructuring [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS schema is a parameterized frame or tree of frames: for copying structures [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS has tools for importing material from other sources [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS databases can be as large as all file servers on a network [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: multiple databases are easily merged into a single KMS database [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS hierarchies of frames easily converted into a formatted document [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS formatting by adding annotations such as @NewPage or @Index:copying [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: KMS is hybrid between WYSIWYG and markup systems: frames already formatted [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: hypertext provides a rich design space with much potential for enhancement [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: hypertext design involves many tradeoffs, system can become too complex; strive for simplicity [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: complexity in software is largely due to complex data models [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: inconsistent data models makes user interface difficult; particularly for distributed versions [»akscRM7_1988, OK]
KMSquote: hypertext can have a simple, standard user interface (better than desktop metaphor) [»akscRM7_1988, OK]

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Collected barberCB 7/88
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Thesa is a trademark of C. Bradford Barber.